Step length determines minimum toe clearance in older adults and people with Parkinson’s disease

18/01/2018

Source: Journal of Biomechanics, 2017, online

Follow this link for the abstract

Date of publication: December 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Reduced foot clearance when walking may increase the risk of trips and falls in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Changes in foot clearance in PD are likely to be associated with temporal-spatial characteristics of gait such as walking slowly which evokes alterations in the temporal-spatial control of stepping patterns. Enhancing the understanding of the temporal-spatial determinants of foot clearance may inform the design of falls prevention therapies. Results suggest step length is the primary determinant of MTC regardless of pathology. Interventions that focus on increasing step length may help to reduce the risk of trips and falls during gait, however, clinical trials are required for robust evaluation.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.

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Implementation of the MEDFRAT to decrease falls in community hospital ERs

19/12/2017

Source: Journal of Emergency Nursing, 2017, online

Follow this link for the abstract

Date of publication: November 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: This article looked to identify and implement and evidence-based fall-risk assessment tool for use in emergency departments in rural areas. The Memorial Emergency Department Fall-Risk Assessment Tool (MEDFRAT) was programmed into the electronic medical record along with interventions that could be selected for two fall-risk levels. The model was found to be a useful framework in the process of implementing evidence-based changes in a rural population, though ongoing follow-ups will determine if the process results in fewer falls.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Does perturbation training prevent falls after discharge from stroke rehabilitation?

14/07/2017

Source: Journal of Stroke and Cerebro-Vascular Diseases, 2017, online

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Date of publication: June 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Individuals with stroke fall frequently, and no exercise intervention has been shown to prevent falls post stroke. Perturbation-based balance training (PBT), which involves practicing reactions to instability, shows promise for preventing falls in older adults and individuals with Parkinson’s disease. This study aimed to determine if PBT during inpatient stroke rehabilitation can prevent falls after discharge into the community. These findings suggest that PBT is promising for reducing falls post stroke. While this was not a randomized controlled trial, this study may provide sufficient evidence for implementing PBT in stroke rehabilitation practice.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Pilot Testing Fall TIPS (Tailoring Interventions for Patient Safety)

14/07/2017

Source: The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 2017, online

Follow this link for the abstract

Date of publication: June 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Patient falls during an acute hospitalization cause injury, reduced mobility, and increased costs. The laminated paper Fall TIPS Toolkit (Fall TIPS) provides clinical decision support at the bedside by linking each patient’s fall risk assessment with evidence-based interventions. Strategies were needed to integrate this evidence into clinical practice.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Evaluation of falls sensor technology in acute care

14/07/2017

Source: The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 2017, online

Follow this link for the abstract

Date of publication: June 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Sensor technology that dynamically identifies hospitalized patients’ fall risk and detects and alerts nurses of high-risk patients’ early exits out of bed has potential for reducing fall rates and preventing patient harm. In this study, a sensor was evaluated on two inpatient medical units to study fall characteristics and then to assign patient fall probability. A fall detection sensor system affords a level of surveillance that standard fall alert systems do not have. Fall prevention remains a complex issue, but sensor technology is a viable fall prevention option.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Effects of vibration training in reducing risk of slip-related falls among young adults with obesity

17/05/2017

Source: Journal of Biomechanics, 2017, online

Follow this link for the abstract

Date of publication: April 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: This study examined the effects of controlled whole-body vibration training on reducing risk of slip-related falls in obese people. Twenty-three young adults with obesity were randomly assigned into either the vibration or placebo group. Both groups were also exposed to a standardized slip induced by a treadmill during gait prior to and following the training. Dynamic stability and fall incidences responding to the slip were also assessed. The results indicated that vibration training significantly increased the muscle strength and improved dynamic stability control at recovery touchdown after the slip occurrence. Vibration-based training could be a promising alternative or additional modality to active exercise-based fall prevention programs for people with obesity.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


A hierarchical alarm model for elderly fall prevention sensors

17/05/2017

Source: Pervasive and Mobile Computing, 2017, online

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Date of publication: April 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: New technologies allow for automatic monitoring of hospitalised older people, helping clinical staff to supervise to reduce falls. This paper introduces a hierarchical model to predict alarming states in a sensor worn over clothes. The hierarchy predicts levels of danger to warn clinical staff of possible fall danger.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to  find your local NHS Library.


Dopamine depletion in Parkinsons alters brain processing, impairing gait automaticity

18/04/2017

Source: NeuroImage, 2017, Vol 152 p. 207-220

Follow this link for the abstract

Date of publication: May 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Impairments in motor automaticity cause patients with Parkinson’s disease to rely on attentional resources during gait, resulting in greater motor variability and a higher risk of falls. Although dopaminergic circuitry is known to play an important role in motor automaticity, little evidence exists on the neural mechanisms underlying the breakdown of locomotor automaticity in Parkinson’s disease. Overall, this study demonstrates that dopamine ameliorates gait automaticity in Parkinson’s disease by altering striatal, limbic and cerebellar processing, thereby informing future therapeutic avenues for gait and falls prevention.

Length of publication: 13 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Depressive symptomatology and fall risk among community-dwelling older adults

18/04/2017

Source: Social Science & Medicine, 2017, Vol 178 p. 206-213

Follow this link for the abstract

Date of publication: April 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Falls are common among older adults and may be related to depressive symptoms (DS). With advancing age, there is an onset of chronic conditions, sensory impairments, and activity limitations that are associated with falls and with depressive disorders. Prior cross-sectional studies have observed significant associations between DS and subsequent falls as well as between fractures and subsequent clinical depression and DS. Using sophisticated methods and a large U.S. sample, this study found larger magnitudes of effect in the DS-falls relationship than in prior studies—highlighting the risk of falls for older adults with DS.

Length of publication: 7 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Effects of obesity in recovering stability after a treadmill slip

21/02/2017

Source: Journal of Biomechanics, 2017, online

Follow this link for the abstract

Date of publication: January 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: This study investigated the effects of obesity on falls and dynamic stability control in young adults subjected to a standardized treadmill-induced gait-slip. Trials were categorized as a fall or recovery based on the reliance of the subject on external support following the slip. Compared with the normal-weight group, the obese group demonstrated less relative muscle strength and fell more after the slip. Obese people’s dynamic stability after slip was impaired possibly due to the inability of controlling the trunk segment’s backward lean movement. Obesity therefore most likely influences ability to recover from slips. Interventions must be aimed at balance recovery among individuals with obesity.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.