Quick adjustments during gait are less accurate through focal cerebellar lesions

17/10/2017

Source: Gait & Posture, 2017, Volume 58 p. 390-393

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Date of publication: October 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Online gait corrections are frequently used to restore gait stability and prevent falling. They require shorter response times than voluntary movements which suggests that subcortical pathways contribute to the execution of online gait corrections. To evaluate the cerebellum in these pathways two hypotheses were tested around accuracy of online gait corrections and the pronouncement of differences. The reduced ability to accurately adjust foot placement during walking in individuals with focal cerebellar lesions appears to be a general movement control deficit, which could contribute to increased fall risk.

Length of publication: 3 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.

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Physical-cognitive training enhances posture during life tasks in older adults

17/10/2017

Source: Experimental Gerontology, 2017, online

Follow this link for the abstract

Date of publication: September 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Physical-cognitive interventions seem promising to improve balance and gait performances and prevent falls in the elderly. Although these beneficial effects, it is still not clear whether these physical-cognitive training modalities leads to more general non-specific adaptations that can be transferred to some measures reflecting every day abilities.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Strategies to prevent falls and injuries among older adults

15/09/2017

Source: Nursing Clinics of North America, 2017, Volume 52 no 3 p. 489-497

Follow this link for the abstract

Date of publication: September 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Falls in older adults are the leading cause of injuries, and community-dwelling older adults should have an annual fall risk screening/assessment. This article looks at both clinical and community-based strategies from several different evidence-based programs to raise awareness in older adults in the community about falls, about increasing strength and balance, and to address the fear of falling.

Length of publication: 8 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Balance and fall risk assessments with mobile phone technology

15/09/2017

Source: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 2017, online

Follow this link for the abstract

Date of publication: August 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: While falls are a major health concern for older adults, preventative measures can help to reduce their incidence and severity; methods for assessing balance and fall risk factors are necessary to implement preventative measures. Mobile applications are being developed to enable seniors, caregivers and clinicians to monitor risks. This systematic review assesses reviews of such apps for their accuracy, reliability and validity. Further research is needed.

Length of publication: 16 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


The effects of haptic input on biomechanical and neurophysiological parameters of walking

15/09/2017

Source: Gait and Posture, 2107, Vol 58 p. 232-239

Follow this link for the abstract

Date of publication: October 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Walking requires sensorimotor integration to be successful. Adding haptic input via light touch or anchors has been shown to improve standing balance, but its effects on walking are not clear. This scoping review summarises the current evidence for haptic input on walking in adults. Results show that adding haptic input changes walking behaviour. In particular, there is an immediate reduction in variability of gait step parameters and whole body stability, as well as a decrease in lower limb muscle activity. However, more investigation is needed.

Length of publication: 7 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Development and delivery of an exercise programme for falls prevention

17/08/2017

Source: Physiotherapy, 2017, online

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Date of publication: June 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: This paper describes the development and implementation of an exercise intervention to prevent falls within The Prevention of Fall Injury Trial (PreFIT), which is a large multi-centred randomised controlled trial based in the UK National Health Service (NHS). The exercise programme targets lower limb strength and balance, which are known, modifiable risk factors for falling.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Welsh Ambulance Service distributes CSP’s falls prevention booklet

14/07/2017

Source: Chartered Society of Physiotherapists website

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Date of publication: June 2017

Publication type: News press release

In a nutshell: Patients using non-emergency transport vehicles in Wales are receiving copies of the CSP’s Get Up and Go booklet about how to avoid falls. ‘Developed by Saga in association with the CSP, it covers a range of falls prevention aspects and includes exercises for strength and balance, as well as guidance about getting up from a fall.’

Length of publication: 1 page


Dance movement therapy and falls prevention

16/06/2017

Source: Maturitas, 2017, Vol 102 p. 1-5

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Date of publication: August 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Dance is a popular form of physical activity among older people which may improve various health outcomes in this population such as balance, gait and muscle performance. This study conducted a systematic review considering all RCTs investigating if dance can reduce falls and improve fear of falling in older adults. In two out of three RCTs, dancing improved this. However, there is a paucity of studies on dancing and falls, so the evidence is preliminary and equivocal.

Length of publication: 5 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this lik to find your local NHS Library.


Accelerometry-based assessment and detection of early signs of balance deficits

17/05/2017

Source: Computers in Biology and Medicine

Follow this link for the abstract

Date of publication: 1 June 2017 vol. 85, pps. 25–32

 Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Falls are the cause for more than half of the injury-related hospitalizations among older people. Accurate assessment of individuals’ fall risk could enable targeted interventions to reduce the risk. This paper presents a novel method for using wearable accelerometers to detect early signs of deficits in balance from gait. Gait acceleration data were analyzed from 35 healthy female participants (73.86±5.40 years). The data were collected with waist-mounted accelerometer and the participants performed three supervised balance tests: Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG) and 4 m walk. The follow-up tests with the same protocol were performed after one year. Altogether 43 features were extracted from the accelerometer signals. Sequential forward floating selection and ten-fold cross-validation were applied to determine models for 1) estimating the outcomes of BBS, TUG and 4 m walk tests and 2) predicting decline in balance during one-year follow-up indicated as decline in BBS total score and one leg stance. Normalized root-mean-square errors (RMSE) of the assessment scale result estimates were 0.28 for BBS score, 0.18 for TUG time, and 0.22 for 4 m walk test. Area under curve (AUC) was 0.78 for predicting decline in BBS total score and 0.82 for one leg stance, respectively. The results suggest that the gait features can be used to estimate the result of a clinical balance assessment scale and predict decline in balance. A simple walk test with wearable monitoring could be applicable as an initial screening tool to identify people with early signs of balance deficits.

 Length of publication: 7 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.

 


A hierarchical alarm model for elderly fall prevention sensors

17/05/2017

Source: Pervasive and Mobile Computing, 2017, online

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Date of publication: April 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: New technologies allow for automatic monitoring of hospitalised older people, helping clinical staff to supervise to reduce falls. This paper introduces a hierarchical model to predict alarming states in a sensor worn over clothes. The hierarchy predicts levels of danger to warn clinical staff of possible fall danger.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to  find your local NHS Library.


Dopamine depletion in Parkinsons alters brain processing, impairing gait automaticity

18/04/2017

Source: NeuroImage, 2017, Vol 152 p. 207-220

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Date of publication: May 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Impairments in motor automaticity cause patients with Parkinson’s disease to rely on attentional resources during gait, resulting in greater motor variability and a higher risk of falls. Although dopaminergic circuitry is known to play an important role in motor automaticity, little evidence exists on the neural mechanisms underlying the breakdown of locomotor automaticity in Parkinson’s disease. Overall, this study demonstrates that dopamine ameliorates gait automaticity in Parkinson’s disease by altering striatal, limbic and cerebellar processing, thereby informing future therapeutic avenues for gait and falls prevention.

Length of publication: 13 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


The use of step aerobics and the stability ball to improve balance and quality of life in community-dwelling older adults – a randomized exploratory study

18/04/2017

Source: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics

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Date of publication: July–August 2017, vol. 71, pps 66–74

 Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: This article explorse the use of step aerobics (SA) and the stability ball (SB) as tools for balance improvement in community-dwelling older adults.

 Length of publication: 8 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.

 


Effects of obesity in recovering stability after a treadmill slip

21/02/2017

Source: Journal of Biomechanics, 2017, online

Follow this link for the abstract

Date of publication: January 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: This study investigated the effects of obesity on falls and dynamic stability control in young adults subjected to a standardized treadmill-induced gait-slip. Trials were categorized as a fall or recovery based on the reliance of the subject on external support following the slip. Compared with the normal-weight group, the obese group demonstrated less relative muscle strength and fell more after the slip. Obese people’s dynamic stability after slip was impaired possibly due to the inability of controlling the trunk segment’s backward lean movement. Obesity therefore most likely influences ability to recover from slips. Interventions must be aimed at balance recovery among individuals with obesity.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Complex and simple clinical reaction times are associated with gait, balance, and major fall injury in older subjects with diabetic peripheral neuropathy

27/01/2017

Source: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

Follow this link for the abstract

Date of publication: January 2017 – vol. 96,  iss. 1, pps 8–16

 Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: The aim of this work was to identify relationships between complex and simple clinical measures of reaction time and indicators of balance in older subjects with and without diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

 Length of publication: 8 pages