Development and delivery of an exercise programme for falls prevention

17/08/2017

Source: Physiotherapy, 2017, online

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Date of publication: June 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: This paper describes the development and implementation of an exercise intervention to prevent falls within The Prevention of Fall Injury Trial (PreFIT), which is a large multi-centred randomised controlled trial based in the UK National Health Service (NHS). The exercise programme targets lower limb strength and balance, which are known, modifiable risk factors for falling.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Welsh Ambulance Service distributes CSP’s falls prevention booklet

14/07/2017

Source: Chartered Society of Physiotherapists website

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Date of publication: June 2017

Publication type: News press release

In a nutshell: Patients using non-emergency transport vehicles in Wales are receiving copies of the CSP’s Get Up and Go booklet about how to avoid falls. ‘Developed by Saga in association with the CSP, it covers a range of falls prevention aspects and includes exercises for strength and balance, as well as guidance about getting up from a fall.’

Length of publication: 1 page


Dance movement therapy and falls prevention

16/06/2017

Source: Maturitas, 2017, Vol 102 p. 1-5

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Date of publication: August 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Dance is a popular form of physical activity among older people which may improve various health outcomes in this population such as balance, gait and muscle performance. This study conducted a systematic review considering all RCTs investigating if dance can reduce falls and improve fear of falling in older adults. In two out of three RCTs, dancing improved this. However, there is a paucity of studies on dancing and falls, so the evidence is preliminary and equivocal.

Length of publication: 5 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this lik to find your local NHS Library.


Accelerometry-based assessment and detection of early signs of balance deficits

17/05/2017

Source: Computers in Biology and Medicine

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Date of publication: 1 June 2017 vol. 85, pps. 25–32

 Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Falls are the cause for more than half of the injury-related hospitalizations among older people. Accurate assessment of individuals’ fall risk could enable targeted interventions to reduce the risk. This paper presents a novel method for using wearable accelerometers to detect early signs of deficits in balance from gait. Gait acceleration data were analyzed from 35 healthy female participants (73.86±5.40 years). The data were collected with waist-mounted accelerometer and the participants performed three supervised balance tests: Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG) and 4 m walk. The follow-up tests with the same protocol were performed after one year. Altogether 43 features were extracted from the accelerometer signals. Sequential forward floating selection and ten-fold cross-validation were applied to determine models for 1) estimating the outcomes of BBS, TUG and 4 m walk tests and 2) predicting decline in balance during one-year follow-up indicated as decline in BBS total score and one leg stance. Normalized root-mean-square errors (RMSE) of the assessment scale result estimates were 0.28 for BBS score, 0.18 for TUG time, and 0.22 for 4 m walk test. Area under curve (AUC) was 0.78 for predicting decline in BBS total score and 0.82 for one leg stance, respectively. The results suggest that the gait features can be used to estimate the result of a clinical balance assessment scale and predict decline in balance. A simple walk test with wearable monitoring could be applicable as an initial screening tool to identify people with early signs of balance deficits.

 Length of publication: 7 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.

 


A hierarchical alarm model for elderly fall prevention sensors

17/05/2017

Source: Pervasive and Mobile Computing, 2017, online

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Date of publication: April 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: New technologies allow for automatic monitoring of hospitalised older people, helping clinical staff to supervise to reduce falls. This paper introduces a hierarchical model to predict alarming states in a sensor worn over clothes. The hierarchy predicts levels of danger to warn clinical staff of possible fall danger.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to  find your local NHS Library.


Dopamine depletion in Parkinsons alters brain processing, impairing gait automaticity

18/04/2017

Source: NeuroImage, 2017, Vol 152 p. 207-220

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Date of publication: May 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Impairments in motor automaticity cause patients with Parkinson’s disease to rely on attentional resources during gait, resulting in greater motor variability and a higher risk of falls. Although dopaminergic circuitry is known to play an important role in motor automaticity, little evidence exists on the neural mechanisms underlying the breakdown of locomotor automaticity in Parkinson’s disease. Overall, this study demonstrates that dopamine ameliorates gait automaticity in Parkinson’s disease by altering striatal, limbic and cerebellar processing, thereby informing future therapeutic avenues for gait and falls prevention.

Length of publication: 13 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


The use of step aerobics and the stability ball to improve balance and quality of life in community-dwelling older adults – a randomized exploratory study

18/04/2017

Source: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics

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Date of publication: July–August 2017, vol. 71, pps 66–74

 Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: This article explorse the use of step aerobics (SA) and the stability ball (SB) as tools for balance improvement in community-dwelling older adults.

 Length of publication: 8 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.

 


Effects of obesity in recovering stability after a treadmill slip

21/02/2017

Source: Journal of Biomechanics, 2017, online

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Date of publication: January 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: This study investigated the effects of obesity on falls and dynamic stability control in young adults subjected to a standardized treadmill-induced gait-slip. Trials were categorized as a fall or recovery based on the reliance of the subject on external support following the slip. Compared with the normal-weight group, the obese group demonstrated less relative muscle strength and fell more after the slip. Obese people’s dynamic stability after slip was impaired possibly due to the inability of controlling the trunk segment’s backward lean movement. Obesity therefore most likely influences ability to recover from slips. Interventions must be aimed at balance recovery among individuals with obesity.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Complex and simple clinical reaction times are associated with gait, balance, and major fall injury in older subjects with diabetic peripheral neuropathy

27/01/2017

Source: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

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Date of publication: January 2017 – vol. 96,  iss. 1, pps 8–16

 Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: The aim of this work was to identify relationships between complex and simple clinical measures of reaction time and indicators of balance in older subjects with and without diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

 Length of publication: 8 pages

 

 


Changes in physical activity, sedentary time and risk of falling

27/01/2017

Source: Preventive Medicine, 2017, Vol 95 p. 103-109

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Date of publication: February 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Falling significantly affects quality of life, morbidity, and mortality among older adults. This study sought to evaluate the prospective association between sedentary time, physical activity, and falling among post-menopausal women aged 50–79 years recruited to the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study between 1993 and 1998 in the US. It followed recreational physical activity, sitting, sleeping and lean body mass. Falls per year were assessed annually. It found that physically active lifestyles increased falling amongst post-menopausal women. Additional fall prevention strategies, such as balance and resistance training, are needed to prevent diseases caused by inactivity.

Length of publication: 6 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


The degree of misjudgment between perceived and actual gait ability

19/12/2016

Source: Gait & posture, 2017, Vol 51 p. 275-280

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Date of publication: January 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Carrying out motor tasks successfully means a person’s perception of their physical abilities must be integrated with a perception of the task itself. Geriatric decline in physical and cognitive abilities may lead to misjudgements and possibly errors leading to loss of balance. This study aimed to quantify how much older adults misjudge their actual gait ability. Better abilities did not appear to be associated with better judgement – in fact, a range of misjudgements showed. This could provide insight into the interplay between cognition and physical abilities, and add value towards fall prevention and promotion of healthy ageing.

Length of publication: 5 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Exergame technology and interactive interventions for elderly fall prevention

19/12/2016

Source: Applied Ergonomics, 2016, online

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Date of publication: November 2016

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Training balance and promoting physical activities in the elderly can contribute to fall-prevention. Due to the low adherence of conventional physical therapy, fall interventions through exergame technologies are emerging. This review study synthesized the available research on exergame technology and interactive interventions for fall prevention in the older population. The exergame intervention protocols and outcome measures for assessing intervention effectiveness varied, but the accumulated evidences revealed improved physical or cognitive functions. It remains inconclusive whether this intervention is superior to conventional physical therapy, and the effect mechanism of the exergaming on elderly’s balance ability is still unclear.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Evidence of compensatory joint kinetics on stairs in Parkinson’s disease

19/12/2016

Source: Gait and Posture, 2017, Vol 52 p. 33-39

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Date of pulication: February 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Using stairs requires larger joint movements than simply walking and preventing lower limb collapse depends on large enough movement in the hip, knee and ankle. However, people with Parkinson’s disease often can’t control their lower limbs which can increase fall risk. They also rely more heavily on knee extensor muscles which can provide them with an increased sense of stability.

Length of publication: 6 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Multicomponent training improves balance, strength in type 2 diabetes, peripheral neuropathy

17/11/2016

Source: Endocrine Today

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Date of publication: October 17, 2016

 Publication type: News item

In a nutshell: A targeted multicomponent program that includes functional strengthening exercises, walking, aerobics or tai chi can improve balance and strength for adults with type 2 diabetes and peripheral neuropathy, but long-term data are insufficient to determine whether any improvements reduce the risk for falls, according to researchers.

 Length of publication: One page