Quick adjustments during gait are less accurate through focal cerebellar lesions

17/10/2017

Source: Gait & Posture, 2017, Volume 58 p. 390-393

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Date of publication: October 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Online gait corrections are frequently used to restore gait stability and prevent falling. They require shorter response times than voluntary movements which suggests that subcortical pathways contribute to the execution of online gait corrections. To evaluate the cerebellum in these pathways two hypotheses were tested around accuracy of online gait corrections and the pronouncement of differences. The reduced ability to accurately adjust foot placement during walking in individuals with focal cerebellar lesions appears to be a general movement control deficit, which could contribute to increased fall risk.

Length of publication: 3 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.

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Conceptualizing a dynamic fall risk model including intrinsic risks and exposures

17/10/2017

Source: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 2017, Online

Follow this link for the abstract

Date of publication: September 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Falls are a major cause of injury and disability in older people, and can lead to various health and social consequences. Accurately understanding and identifying a person’s fall risk is needed to design and provide individual prevention measures, but current fall-risk models are weak compared to risk models for other specialities. Current models, for example, consider risk factors to be stable over time, not reflecting real-life experience. This study therefore posits a dynamic fall-risk model linking time and context. This may lead to the development of new fall prevention interventions.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Strategies to prevent falls and injuries among older adults

15/09/2017

Source: Nursing Clinics of North America, 2017, Volume 52 no 3 p. 489-497

Follow this link for the abstract

Date of publication: September 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Falls in older adults are the leading cause of injuries, and community-dwelling older adults should have an annual fall risk screening/assessment. This article looks at both clinical and community-based strategies from several different evidence-based programs to raise awareness in older adults in the community about falls, about increasing strength and balance, and to address the fear of falling.

Length of publication: 8 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


An integrative review of pediatric fall risk assessment tools

18/04/2017

Source: Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 2017, online

Follow this link for the abstract

Date of publication: March 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Patient fall prevention begins with accurate risk assessment. However, sustained improvements in prevention and quality of care include use of validated fall risk assessment tools (FRATs) to identify patients at highest risk. Adult FRATs are often used to create tools for pediatric patients. However, adult FRATs do not adequately assess risk in children, and pediatric FRATs have not been found to be reliable and valid across institutions and diverse populations. This review highlights the importance of choosing a FRAT based on an institution’s identified risk factors and validating the tool for one’s own patient population.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Preoperative Falls Predict Postoperative Falls, Functional Decline, and Surgical Complications

19/10/2016

Source: EBioMedicine, 2016, online

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Date of publication: August 2016

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Falls are common and linked to morbidity. This study’s objectives were to characterize postoperative falls, and determine whether preoperative falls independently predicted postoperative falls (primary outcome), functional dependence, quality of life, complications, and readmission. It concluded that falls are common after surgery, and preoperative falls herald postoperative falls and other adverse outcomes. A history of preoperative falls should be routinely ascertained.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Body mass index, falls, and injurious falls among U.S. adults

19/10/2016

Source: Preventive Medicine, 2016, Vol 91 p. 217-223

Follow this link for the abstract

Date of publication: October 2016

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Falls are an important health concern because they are associated with loss of independence and disability, particularly among women. This study determined the age- and sex-specific prevalence of injurious falls among adults in the United States and examined the impact of obesity on fall risk. Not only are mid-life women at high risk for falls, but the class II/III obesity is a risk factor for injurious falls. Targeting mid-life women for fall and injury prevention is an important aim for practitioners, particularly given unique correlates of falling for this group.

Length of publication: 6 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Preventing falls for a person with dementia

15/08/2016

Source: Crisis Prevention Institute

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Date of publication: July 2016

Publication type: Website

In a nutshell: Falls are a danger to a person with dementia, and a cause of alarm to family and professional caregivers. Wherever the person lives, and no matter what stage of dementia the person is living with, falls must—and can—be prevented due to their high-risk status and the difficulty associated with recovery. Evidence indicates that multifactorial approaches are beneficial. Collaborating with an occupational therapist (OT) trained in dementia care is essential, as they will discover the client’s cognitive level and focus on remaining abilities, as well as task modification, environmental adaptation and enhanced communication.

Length of publication: 1 page


Risk factors for falls in people with lower limb amputation

15/08/2016

Source: PM&R, 2016, online

Follow this link for the abstract

Date of publication: July 2016

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: This systematic review looked at the evidence connecting risk factors to falls in adults with a lower limb amputation. Risk factors include muscle weakness, increasing age, prescription medications and comorbidities. Risk factors specifically for amputees included reduced vibration sense. It found that falls are common from the time of amputation to years later in the community. Risk factors vary across care settings which has implications for safety and fall prevention strategies.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Anxiety disorders and falls among older adults

25/07/2016

Source: Journal of Affective Disorders, 2016, Vol 205 p. 20-27

Follow this link for the abstract

Date of publication: November 2016

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: This study aimed to determine associations between anxiety disorders and falls in older adults. Examination of this association suggested differential relationships between the genders. In men, lifetime anxiety disorder was associated with falling and with EFST score. In women, an association between lifetime anxiety disorder and falls was explained by psychotropic medication use, poor mobility and socioeconomic status. Although anxiety disorders were independently associated with a 3-fold increase in likelihood of reported falls and high falls risk among men, an independent association was not detected among women. These results may aid in prevention of falls through specific interventions aimed at reducing anxiety, particularly in men.

Length of publication: 7 Pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find yor local NHS Library.


Developing predictive models for fear of falling from posturography parameters

21/06/2016

Source: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2016, Vol 54 p. 131-138

Follow this link for the abstract

Date of Publication: July 2016

Publication type:Journal article

In a nutshell: Falls pose an important problem for older adults. Balance training is one of the main prevention strategies, but there is a lack of objective measurement methods that would allow the effectiveness of the treatments employed to be assessed. This study aimed to analyse the relationship between posturographic parameters and risk factors associated with falling, including the fear of falling (FoF). Posturography can be used as an assessment tool to analyse the effects of those treatments aimed at preventing falls.

Length of publication: 7 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


More laboratory-induced slips occur among obese individuals

14/03/2016

Source: Journal of Biomechanics, 2016, online

Follow this link for the abstract

Date of publication: February 2016

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Slip falls can be serious, estimated to cause 40-50% of all fall related injuries. Epidemiological data indicates that older and obese adults experience more falls than young, non-obese individuals. This study investigated the effects of obesity and age on slip severity from laboratory-induced slips. Obesity did not affect slip distance, slip duration or peak slip speed, but obese individuals were more than eight times more likely to experience a fall than non-obese individuals when adjusting for certain factors. These results indicate that obesity may be a significant risk factor for experiencing slip-induced falls.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Falls and Balance Impairments in Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

16/02/2016

Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes, 2016, Vol 40 no 1 p. 6-9

Follow this link for the abstract

Date of publication: February 2016

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Older adults with type 2 diabetes are far more likely to fall than those without, and the consequences of these falls include avoiding activity, gradual immobility and mortality. Balance is one of the most common risk factors, which is associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). This is therefore the central focus of falls prevention research and interventions in these cases. But certain studies have found those without major complications of DPN to be at increased falls risk as well, associating with subtle declines in sensorimotor and cognitive function. Knowledge of this may help fall prevention strategies.

Length of publication: 3 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Non-spatial memory influencing reach-grasp responses and loss of balance

16/02/2016

Source: Gait and Posture, 2016, Vol 45 p. 51-55

Follow this link for the abstract

Date of publication: March 2016

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Balance recovery after loss of balance is crucial to falls prevention, head trauma and other major injuries in older adults. When a fall occurs, little is known about the role of memory and attention shifting on the reach to grasp recovery strategy and what factors determine the response’s speed and precision beyond simple reaction time. Older adults were found demonstrate significantly increased movement time and grasping errors.

Length of publication: 4 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Characteristics of the middle-age adult inpatient fall

16/02/2016

Source: Applied Nursing Research, 2016, online

Follow this link for the abstract

Date of publication: January 2016

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: This retrospective analysis looked to describe characteristics of middle-age inpatient fallers and the risk factors behind their falls and injuries. The age group of 45-64 years was compared with ages 21-44 and 65-90. Their acute illness was found to mark them as vulnerable to fall and injury, the same as the older population, and they should not be overlooked for prevention measures.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.