Reducing falls can help trusts improve patient experience and reduce costs

17/08/2017

Source: NHS Improvement, 2017

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Date of publication: July 2017

Publication type: Website

In a nutshell: This report from NHS Improvement provides a picture of the scale of inpatient falls and the benefits to the NHS if the rate in hospitals was reduced. It followed the successful completion of their collaboration between 19 trusts to adopt improvement methodologies and creating a learning community to discuss changes. Results include the observation that older patients represent 77% of total falls, but 87% of total costs – reducing this group by around 25-30% could result in annual savings of up to £170m.

Length of publication: 1 page


Parkinsonian signs are a risk factor for falls

17/05/2017

Source: Gait & Posture, 2017 p. 1-5

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Date of publication: June 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: This cohort study looked at how likely people with Parkinson’s disease were to fall compared to those without, as Parkinsonian symptoms are common in older adults and are associated with increased rates of dementia and mortality. Even adjusting for age, cognitive function and co-morbidities, those with signs were still 38% more likely to fall than those without, and those falls were also more likely to lead to injury. Parkinsonian signs are a significant and independent risk factor for falls, and early detection is essential to implement fall prevention programmes.

Length of publication: 5 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Effects of obesity in recovering stability after a treadmill slip

21/02/2017

Source: Journal of Biomechanics, 2017, online

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Date of publication: January 2017

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: This study investigated the effects of obesity on falls and dynamic stability control in young adults subjected to a standardized treadmill-induced gait-slip. Trials were categorized as a fall or recovery based on the reliance of the subject on external support following the slip. Compared with the normal-weight group, the obese group demonstrated less relative muscle strength and fell more after the slip. Obese people’s dynamic stability after slip was impaired possibly due to the inability of controlling the trunk segment’s backward lean movement. Obesity therefore most likely influences ability to recover from slips. Interventions must be aimed at balance recovery among individuals with obesity.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Exercise and vitamin D reduce falls among institutionalised frail elderly

19/12/2016

Source: International Journal of Gerontology, 2016, online

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Date of publication: November 2016

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Falls are a serious problem among frail elderly people and prevention is an important health concern. This study compared the frequency of falls among institutionalised residents following different interventions: low-frequency exercise; vitamin supplementation; a combination of both. The results showed that combining the two interventions significantly reduced the risk of falls, whereas the other two groups did not show any significant difference.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Falls and fear of falling after stroke

25/07/2016

Source: PM&R, 2016, online

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Date of publication: June 2016

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Falls are common after someone has suffered a stroke, and the consequences are potentially serious. However, few investigations have age-matched the control participants to directly compare with fall characteristics between older adults with and without strokes. Also, fear of falling – a significant psychological consequence of falls – has only been examined to a limited degree as a risk factor for future falls in a stroke population. This observational study aimed to compare the fall history between older adults with and without previous stroke and to identify the determinants of falls and fear of falling in older stroke victims

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Do statistical models matter for performance criteria of fall prediction in the elderly?

18/01/2016

Source: European Journal of Internal Medicine, 2016, Vol 27 p. 48-56

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Date of publication: January 2016

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: This study compared various performance criteria of different statistical models for fall risk in older community-dwellers. It tested six linear models and three non-linear models, including neuroevolution of augmenting topologies (NEAT) and the adaptive neuro fuzzy interference system (ANFIS). The study found that these latter two had the best performance criteria compared to other models, but sensitivity and specificity were unbalanced, underscoring that these models should be used respectively for the screening of fallers and the diagnosis of recurrent fallers.

Length of publication: 8 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Effect of footwear on foot clearance, slippage and gait in older women

16/12/2015

Source: Gait and Posture, 2016, Vol 44 p. 43-47

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Date of publication: February 2016

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Footwear is likely to be a factor in falls, a major issue affecting older adults’ health. This study investigated the effect of footwear on minimum foot clearance, heel slippage and spatiotemporal variables of gait in community-dwelling older women. The results show that older women should be supported to make footwear choices with optimal fitting features; recommendations of particular styles and features of footwear may assist during falls prevention education to reduce the incidence of foot trips and falls.

Length of publication: 4 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Temporal trends in falls cases seen by EMS in Melbourne

16/12/2015

Source: Injury, 2015, online

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Date of publication: November 2015

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Injury due to falls is a major public health problem, especially for older people. This study aimed to compare the relative accuracies of ambulance call taker triage compared to paramedic assessment, and work out temporal trends and variations in demand for falls cases over time and by residence type for older adults. Using data from call takers may underestimate the incidence of falls compared to using paramedic case records by up to 13%. Temporal patterns can inform ambulance service policy and practice, falls referral and prevention programmes to optimise service delivery which will lessen the number of future falls cases.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Comparing induced and voluntary stepping postures to detect elderly fallers

17/11/2015

Source: Clinical Neurophysiology, 2015, online

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Date of publication: September 2015

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: This paper reviews a physiological task predominant in preventing falls, while simultaneously challenging balance: taking a step. The voluntary step versus a step induced by an external and unpredictable perturbation are presented and compared. It focuses on the community-dwelling elderly population, discussing means of early detection of risk of falls, in order to prescribe an appropriate prevention. A working hypothesis is suggested on how “compensatory protective” steps are controlled and how their evaluation could bring additional information to the global balance assessment of risk of fall.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Ankle dorsiflexion may be important in falls in fibromyalgic women

15/05/2015

Source: Clinical Biomechanics, 2015, online

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Date of publication: April 2015

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Fibromyalgia produces chronic pain and allows only for a reduced range of motion, which leads to gait changes and a high incidence of falls. Intervention programmes can be designed by understanding these gait patterns. This study was designed to evaluate the range of motion of the hip and ankle joints in women with and without fibromyalgia. Ranges of motion were similar between groups except that fibromyalgia sufferers showed higher plantar flexion and lower dorsiflexion. Improved ankle kinematics in this group may help prevent falls and improve mobility.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


A cost-benefit analysis of three older adult fall prevention interventions

19/03/2015

Source: Journal of Safety Research, 2015, Vol 52 p. 65-70

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Date of publication: February 2015

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: One in three people aged 65 or over falls annually and 20-30% of falls result in injury. This cost-benefit analysis looked into community-based fall interventions that were feasible, effective and provided a positive return on investment.

Length of publication: 5 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Bottom-up subspace clustering: a paradigm shift to prevent fall injuries?

17/02/2015

Source: Medical Hypotheses, 2015, online

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Date of publication: January 2015

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: Despite over 10,000 publications since 1990, fall injury rates in older people are still increasing over and above population ageing. This paper investigated the hypothesis that falls are a complex multi-systems medical problem, and a paradigm shift in statistical methods is required before fall injuries can be substantially reduced. It introduces a bottom-up supervised subspace clustering approach as an alternative to conventional approaches to statistical collection.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Comparing fall prevention using exercise with and without motivational interviewing

17/02/2015

Source: Preventive Medicine Reports, 2015, online

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Date of publication: February 2015

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: This paper studied the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial based on a multicentre fall prevention intervention and exercise with or without motivational interviews compared to standard care. No significant differences were found between the groups regarding the outcome measures.

Length of publication: 1 page

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.


Fall Factors among the Elderly in a Beijing Urban Community

15/01/2015

Source: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 2014, Vol 27 no 12 p. 939-949

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Date of publication: December 2014

Publication type: Journal article

In a nutshell: This cross-sectional study looked into the incidence of falls and recurrent falls and associated factors within these among urban community-dwelling elderly people in Beijing. It found various risk factors for single falls and recurrent falls, as well as ways to lower the risk of both. Falls and their related injuries have been associated with intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors.

Length of publication: 10 pages

Some important notes: Please contact your local NHS Library for the full text of the article. Follow this link to find your local NHS Library.